源自戰國的孫臏拳:模仿瘸腿人站立的怪異步法/方剛Sun Bin punches from the Warring States Period: imitation lame man standing weird footwork / Vincent Fang1517877_613838532028538_8447291557191899688_n10150685_796178167131939_7332061127607846078_n
戰國時期的軍事家孫臏一生充滿傳奇,“田忌賽馬”、“圍魏救趙”以及與師兄龐涓鬥智斗勇的事蹟,至今仍為後人傳誦。

令人意外的是,被削去膝蓋骨的孫臏居然還是位身懷絕技的武術高手。以他名字命名的孫臏拳在山東流傳千年,古老而神秘。

孫臏拳傳授極嚴,以口傳身授為主,幾乎沒有任何文字記載,始終披著神秘的面紗。時至今日,隨著社會的日益開放,人們才得以一睹孫臏拳的真容,許多特異的技法也逐漸為人所知。

左晃右移蹣跚步,模仿瘸腿人站立

孫臏拳在武林中又被稱為“長袖拳”。因古人衣袖寬長,該拳便利用了這一特點,習練者手藏袖中,虛實難測,變化詭異。

除了藏拳于袖,孫臏拳的最大特點是它的腿法——蹣跚步。蹣跚步”又稱“孫臏步”,練習者故意兩腿相夾,藏于襠中。以一膝頂住另一膝的內側,雙足成怪異的“T”字形,行動時左晃右移,好似瘸腿人勉強站立走動。這樣,習武者既縮小了迎敵面積,下盤又形成穩固的三角形。這種步法看起來非常詭異,但它的來歷卻與孫臏的經歷息息相關。

據司馬遷的《史記》記載,孫臏在魏國被師兄龐涓陷 ,遭受酷刑,被剜去了膝蓋骨(髕骨)。受刑后的孫臏終日裝瘋,以求蒙混逃脫,相傳這套武術就是他在裝瘋時創練的,因為當時髕骨已失、步伐蹣跚,孫臏拳的腿法就被冠以“蹣跚步”的名稱。

“蹣跚步”步法獨特,為其他門派所無。雖然螳螂拳的“入環步”與其有幾分相似,但本質終是不同。故《拳譜》中有“孫臏步法世間稀,拔跟掀腳不為奇,雙掌旋轉似乾坤,兩腿蹣跚跛行蹲”的記載,這短短四句,道出了蹣跚步的所有奧秘。

“蹣跚步”固然神奇,但也離不開精妙的手上功夫。孫臏拳的拳法便講究“以迂為直”, 強調出拳走曲不走直,有時一拳打出,看似偏離卻總能繞回擊中對手。這種曲線出拳,有時又表現在不招不架、轉攻為守上面,倉促間使對手無法應變。

孫臏拳有“小架”、“大架”、“散手”3套拳法,總計365手。拳法多為凌厲、猛烈的招式,講究連環速攻,以“一掌不到二掌跟,三掌四掌齊跟進”的緊迫逼人氣勢打擊敵人。

除了拳法凌厲以外,孫臏拳更是將兵法的虛虛實實運用在招式變化上,因此它的拳法總是詭異難測。當武者對決時,孫臏拳高手往往會採取“圓、角、線、點”等戰術,以左晃右移的蹣跚步在對手身邊不停地畫弧走圓,用側身迎敵,搶佔角度和先機。瞅準時機,蓄千鈞于一發,以一發而制敵。“嶗山之獅”抗日英雄高芳先與孫臏拳英雄譜

10931011_765625086853914_5704399689333013050_n002i9Hurgy6N0s9v5uk04&690孫臏拳的傳承歷來都是師徒口耳相傳,在武學典籍中罕有記載,籍籍無名,而習練該拳的武林高手也直到晚清時才出現。

清同治年間,山東萊州府出了一位名叫施德的武林高手,打遍數省未逢敵手。施德師承不詳,來歷不明,只是在每次交手前都留下“孫臏拳施德”的名號,孫臏拳也從此名揚天下。

成名后,施德便開始擇徒授業,他一直恪守著孫臏拳訣中“一代一人往下演,千金莫與惡人傳”的警句,拳法只傳給了性格“溫和端方”的次子施仁方、義子欒秉信和女弟子于秀蓮。後來于秀蓮嫁給了施仁方,成了他兒媳,因此“孫臏拳”雖現于江湖幾十年,卻一直是一門家傳功夫,秘而不宣。

打破這種門戶觀念的,還是施德的徒弟欒秉信。欒秉信為人忠厚,長年帶著姪子在外趕車謀生,為求防身,他將自己平生所學盡數傳授給侄兒。後來他的姪子收了山東東阿縣的張好春、張再春兩兄弟為徒;再往後,張好春又收了陽谷縣的楊廷棟。而就是這位楊廷棟(後來改名為楊明齋)最終將孫臏拳發揚光大,成為一代武學宗師。上世紀20年代初,列強瓜分中國,將中國人稱為“東亞病夫”,為了啟迪民智、鍛煉體魄,楊廷棟毅然打破門規所限,在青島開創“國技學社”,廣收門徒傳授武藝。從此孫臏拳練習者逐漸增多,開始走向大眾。1937年盧溝橋事變后,楊明齋又帶領門人積極參加抗日鬥爭,一時間豪傑輩出,其中最有名便是抗日英雄高芳先。高芳先生于1914年,他8歲開始習武,13歲時已遍訪武學名家,其後師承楊明齋練習孫臏拳。1933年,19歲的高芳先參加第17屆華北運動會,一舉斬獲拳術及摔跤冠軍;在兩年后的第6屆全國運動會上,高芳先又獲得中量級摔跤比賽冠軍,這時的他已是青島國術館的副館長了。10416586_765547993528290_2630630958831359836_n

抗日戰爭爆發后,高芳先親自帶領國術館內諸多高手組成大刀隊攻襲日軍。在抗戰八年間,大刀隊一路斬殺日寇,屢建奇功。因戰功赫赫,高芳先一路晉升為少將、中將,成為中國抗日軍人的楷模,被譽為“嶗山之獅”。

南北兩派共同演繹孫臏拳

由於當年日軍進犯,武學大師楊明齋、高芳先等人相繼參加抗日戰鬥,因此孫臏拳的教授曾出現停滯。當時楊明齋為縮短教學時間,想以最快的方式傳授門人,採取學“大架”者,不習“小架”;學“小架”者,不教“大架”的方法,所以大多弟子都沒有機會系統的學習。而楊明齋的授藝方式,又僅限於“身教、口授、心悟”,並未能留下過多的文字記載,因此通曉365手孫臏拳的人少之又少。  而得到杨明斋真传的“十大弟子”在后来天各一方,有的还在青岛,有的则辗转去了北京,甚至海外。他们作古后,门人或传承大架,或练习小架,没人能完整打完整套拳法,千年孙膑拳法似乎有了分崩离析的危险。

  但令人庆幸的是,孙膑拳并没有失传--这些传人们虽然各承一路,却始终认为孙膑拳365手原本都是一家。他们打破门规界限,多次比武交流,并合力谱写孙膑拳诀和拳谱。而后,再根据这些拳诀、拳谱的指引,练习系统的孙膑拳法。

  在今天的青岛,76岁的孟宪堂老人便是孙膑拳的第四代传人。他12岁(1947年)时曾拜在杨明斋关门弟子、“十大弟子之一”的孙文宾门下习武,27岁满师以后开始广收门徒,至今已有50年整。50年来,孟宪堂不但完整研习365手大架、小架与散手,还发表论文数十篇,详尽阐述了孙膑拳的传承与发展,成为现今孙膑拳的集大成者。

  孙膑拳在台湾还另有一支派别。抗日英雄高芳先在1949年去了台湾,定居于台中市。他在台中开设武馆传授孙膑拳法长达20年,为国术传承作出了不可磨灭的贡献。20年里,他培养出大量学生,遍布世界各地,人数多达上千人。他们与青岛孙膑拳遥遥相应,形成孙膑拳南、北两大派。/方剛10659425_701073353309088_2588006247494394332_n1497431_586184194798005_618040235_n   10389703_589817037796232_3287381179013548457_n
源自戰國的孫臏拳:模仿瘸腿人站立的怪異步法/方剛
Sun Bin punches from the Warring States Period: imitation lame man standing weird footwork / Vincent Fang
CIMG3879CIMG3824CIMG3878
Sun Bin in the military house who fights a country period is full of the legend from cradle to the grave, "the farmland hates the horse-racing" and"round Wei to save" and match wits the record of events of brave Dou with the senior huge Juan, still spread to cantillate for posterity up to now.

Make people surprised BE, be scrapinged Sun Bin of kneecap incredibly or the martial arts superior who carry an incomparable skill.Sun Bin Quan, who assigns name to by his name, spreads in Shandong for thousand years, the thou is old and mysterious.

Sun Bin Quan teaches the strictest, with the mouth spread a body to teach for lord, almost have no a writing to jot down, have been covered with a mysterious veil the whole time.Up to now, along with the day by day opening of the society, people just can on seeing really permitting of Sun Bin Quan, many especially different of the skill is also gradually k nown.       

Left sway right move to unsteadily tread, copy to be lame a leg the person stand

Sun Bin Quan is again called "long sleeve boxing" in Wu Lin.Because of the ancients gusset the breadth is long, the boxing's convenience is used this distinguishing feature, the Xi does hide the Xiu in, the truth or falsity is difficult to measure, changes uncanny.

In addition to hiding a boxing at the Xiu, Sun Bin Quan's biggest distinguishing feature is its leg method-unsteadily tread.

"Unsteadily tread" calls "Sun Bin treads" again, practice intentionally two legs mutually clip, Be hidden to the Dang in.With a seamy side that lives another knee, the double foot becomes weird"T" form, action left sway right move, good be lame leg the person unwillingly stand to take a stroll.Thus, Xi Wu Zhe since narrowed to meet the enemy the area, descend the dish again form the triangle of firmness.This kind of footwork looks very uncanny, but its background is as vitally related as Sun Bin's career.《Historical records 》 that moves according to the department horse jots down, Sun Bin was sunk by the senior huge Juan in Wei's country, suffered a torture, gone to the kneecap(Bin bone) by the Wan.Sun Bin after suffering torture all day long packs crazy, in order to deceive to succeed in escaping, devolution this set of martial arts is what he creates to do while packing crazy, because the Bin bone has been already lost at that time, step hobble, Sun Bin Quan's leg method the hat is with the name of "unsteadily tread".

"Unsteadily tread" the footwork is special, are had no by other groups.Although"go into the wreath to tread" of the praying mantis boxing has several cents with it likeness, essence eventually is dissimilarity.So there is jotting down of"Sun Bin's footwork world is sparse, pull out and lift feet aren't strange, the double Zhang revolves the universe, two legs hobble lame line of squat down" in 《boxing table 》 , these short short 4 s, the way is all profound mysteries that paid to unsteadily tread.

"Unsteadily tread" is surely miraculous, but also cans not gets away from the ingenious hand last effort.Sun Bin Quan's boxing method then pays attention to "take Yu as to keep" and emphasizes that boxing's walking song doesn't walk to keep, sometimes the punch tees off and see deviate but can always round to backstroke the medium opponent.This kind of curve pays a boxing and have Sun Bin Quan has "small", "big" and"spread a hand" 3 sets of boxing methods and totals 365 hands.Boxing methods much for relentless, violent recruit type, pay attention to serial soon offend, fight an enemy by urgent pressing vehemence of "a Zhang less than two Zhangs with, three Zhangs four Zhangs together follow".

In addition to boxing method relentless outside, Sun Bin Quan is also truth or falsity usage of art of war at recruit type variety up, therefore its boxing method is always uncanny difficult to measure.When Wu Zhe to definitely, Sun Bin Quan's superior usually adopts the military tacticses like"circle, corn, line and point",etc, with left sway right move unsteadily to tread to nearby and without intermission draw the Hu to walk in the opponent a circle, meet the enemy with the side body, rob to have angle and first timing.Chou punctually machine, Xu thousand Juns in on delivering, with a deliver and system enemy.

"Lion of Lao mountain" composes with Sun Bin Quan's hero

Sun Bin Quan's tradition has been being all teacher and pupil mouth ear devolution, rare jot down in the Wu Xue's ancient works, the book book is unknown, while the Xi does martial superior Lin of the boxing also until just appear while being late pure. Pure together cure for a year, , the Lai state mansion in Shandong paid by the name of Shi De's martial superior Lin, beating the few provinces didn't meet the enemy.Shi De Shi accepts the not known, the background isn't clear, just leave before every time exchanges blows"Sun Bin Quan, Shi De, "'s name, Sun Bin Quan is also from now on world famous.

After becoming famous, Shi De then starts choosing the Tu to teach, he always carefully obey wear the Jing sentence of "generation one person downwards play, daughter's Mo and bad person spread" in Sun Bin Quan Jue, the boxing method only passed the second son Shi Ren Fang of the personality"moderate carry square" and adopted son Luan to grasp letter and female pupil in show lotus.Married Shi Ren Fang at the show lotus afterwards, became his son daughter-in-law, therefore although"Sun Bin Quan" is at the river now lake several decades, have been an inherited in the family effort, keep secret.

Break this kind of gate idea of, still Shi De's disciple Luan grasps the letter.Luan's grasping the letter is faithful and regularly bring nephew to catch a car to make a living in the outside, for beg to defend a body, he he the lifetime whole amount induction learned is to the Zhi son.Afterwards his nephew accepted the east of Shandong Zhang Hao Chun of the county and piece again spring two brotherses At the beginning of 20's in last century, the great powers divides China and be called Chinese"sick man of Asia", for inspiring people Zhi and toughenning the physique, Yang Ting Dong resolutely breaks the family rules limit, open up "the country skill learns a club" in Qingdao, widely accept the disciple induction skill in martial arts.From now on Sun Bin Quan practices to increase gradually and starts heading for the public.Incident empress of Lu Gou Qiao in 1937, Yang Ming Zhai leads the disciple to actively take part in an anti- day to struggle again, the momentary hero generation pays, among them the most well-known would be an anti- day hero Gao Fang is first.

Mr. Gao Fang in 1914, he the 8 years old beginning Xi is martial, at the age of 13 already the time visit the force scientific term house, afterward the teacher accepts Yang Ming Zhai to practice Sun Bin Quan.In 1933, the 19-year-old high Fang first takes part in the 17th north China sports games, with one action cut to get boxing and wrestling champion;At the 6th national sports games after two years up, Gao Fang acquires the middleweight wrestling game champion again first, at this time of he was already a vice- curator of Qingdao Chinese boxing building. After war against Japan breaks out, Gao Fang leads the Chinese boxing in person first many superiors inside the building to constitute a long-handled sword team to offend a Japanese military.Be fighting the invading army for eight years,s, the long-handled sword team cuts the Kou of killing the day all the way and often sets up the strange achievement.Because of military merit He He, Gao Fang promotes for the major general, lieutenant general first and all the way and becomes the model of Chinese anti- Japanese military's person, is praised as "lion of Lao mountain".

South north two parties deduce Sun Bin Quan together

Because in those early years Japanese military into make, Wu Xue, master, Yang Ming Zhai, , , Gao Fang first the etc. person took part in an anti- day one after another combat, therefore Sun Bin Quan's professor once appeared the stagnation.At that time Yang Ming Zhai for shorten the teaching time, wanted to teach the disciple by quickest way, the one who adopted to learn "big", not the Xi"small";The one who learn"small" doesn't teach the method of "big", so mostly the pupils all have no the learning of chance system.And Yang Ming Zhai taught the skill method and was again only limited by "the body teaches, dictate, heart Wu", didn't can leave an excessive writing to jot down, therefore understanding thoroughly 365 hand Sun Bin Quan's persons is few of again few./The square is justAnd get Mingzhai Yang true mass "Ten disciples" in later far apart, some are still in Qingdao, while others flounder went to Beijing, even overseas. After they passed away, the door frame or a large inheritance, or practice small frame, no one can complete the entire kick boxing, boxing seems to have Millennium Sun Bin danger of disintegration.

  But what is news is that Sun Bin punches and no lost - although these people pass each bearing all the way, but always believed that Sun Bin 365 hands were originally a fist. They broke the door regulatory boundaries, repeatedly contest exchange, and work together to compose Sun Bin boxing and boxing spectrum tactics. Then, according to these boxing tactics, guidelines boxing spectrum, Sun Bin boxing training system.In Qingdao today, 76-year-old is the Sun Bin boxing 孟宪堂 fourth generation descendant. He was 12 years old (in 1947) had a close disciple of worship in Mingzhai Yang, 孙文宾 "one of the ten disciples" sects martial arts, after 27-year-old full-division began gathered disciples, has been 50 full years. For 50 years, Meng Xiantang only 365 hands full study large frame, small frame and Sanshou, also published dozens of papers, elaborated on the inheritance and development of Sun Bin boxing, boxing has become today's Sun Bin synthesizer.

Sun Bin boxing in Taiwan also has another one faction. Japanese hero Gao Fang first went to Taiwan in 1949, settled in Taichung. He opened teach martial arts in Taichung Sun Bin boxing for 20 years, for martial arts heritage made an indelible contribution. 20 years, he trained a large number of students throughout the world, as many as a thousand. They distant Qingdao Sun Bin fist appropriate form Sun Bin boxing south, north two factions. / Vincent FangCIMG3805CIMG3855CIMG3891

文章標籤
創作者介紹
創作者 台灣精武之家 的頭像
台灣精武之家

台灣精武之家 Taiwan Jingwu home

台灣精武之家 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()