引言:
形意拳自李洛能宗師開創以來,已經形成了多個技術流派,但是大同小異,在形意拳的基本特點方​​面都差不多。但是現在由於老前輩們都已經過世,形意拳傳承上出了一些問題,行拳風格開始出現偏離,最明顯的例子是近年來中國大陸,全國武術冠軍賽上的形意拳選手,幾乎沒有一個人表現出傳統形意拳的風格,而且偏離很多。民間也存在這種情況,很多所謂形意拳名家把形意拳快變成太極拳了,“戰鬥拳”變成了“衛生拳”,導致現在年輕人對形意拳的認識進入誤區,無法判別某人的形意拳演練到底是好還是壞,令人憂慮形意拳今後的發展。近代著名武術家~形意拳宗師李存義
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 002i9Hurgy6HtDhmxQL8b&690                                                                     著名武術家形意拳大師褚桂亭先生
作者師承近代著名武術家、形意拳宗師李存義(上圖)~褚桂亭先生(下圖)的流派,根據前輩們的傳授,並結合自己的心得,總結了對形意拳演練的八個方面要求,可作為評判一個形意拳選手演練水平的標準,即:氣勢足、外形整、發勁脆、腳步快、力度猛、步伐穩、全身活、氣息定。

正文:

一、氣勢足:有人說形意拳是“戰鬥拳”,有點道理,氣勢威猛呀,聽我的前輩講,以前老一輩的形意拳大師練拳時氣勢很足,威震對手。如果沒有氣勢,就不能說是練形意拳,因此我將“氣勢足”列為評判標準的第一條。

1) 概念說明:如何判斷選手的氣勢是否足,主要看眼神是否收放變化:出擊前瞬間必須將眼神放出,即眼神指向出擊方向,所謂罩住對手;出擊時必須將眼神收回,即指眼神定格在勁點處。

2) 實戰作用:以上練法在實戰中也是有用的,出擊前當然要用眼盯住對手,否則如何知道對手的行動呢;出擊瞬間眼光也當然要盯住你攻擊的部位,否則如何能調動自己的勁力打擊一點呢。

3) 易犯錯誤:現在很多拳友練習形意拳在眼法上存在問題最多,有的在練習過程中一直低頭,或一直抬頭,就沒有了氣勢。

二、外形整:這是形意拳最基本的特徵之一,如果選手連這個要求也不能達到,肯定就不合格。

1) 概念說明:外形整是指選手的全身動作必須整齊,眼到腳到手到身到,一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜。例如

2) 實戰作用:外形整的要求在實戰時是必須的,做不到就會被對手察覺,同時勁力也不會大。

3) 易犯錯誤:現在很多拳友演練時,不太注意這個方面,普遍的毛病是許多動作手已經啟動,但腳和身體卻沒有跟上,要慢半拍,這是練形意拳的大忌。

三、發勁脆:發勁是形意拳的核心技術,傳統形意拳要求用丹田發動向外發勁,老前輩們看一個人練形意拳發勁好壞,就用是否“脆”來概括。

1) 概念說明:“脆”就是乾脆利落的意思,其要求有兩個,第一是在靜止不動的狀態下啟動要快速,要在一瞬間出手,不要有任何預備動作,這完全需要丹田功夫到家才能夠做到;第二是剎車要快,也要在一瞬間從快速動作轉化到靜止不動狀態,這也是要靠丹田功夫。做到了以上兩點,給人的感覺就是“乾脆利​​落”。

2) 實戰作用:實際上“脆”就是物理加速度的運用,必須在最短時間從零速度達到最大速度和從最大速度降到零速度。前者可以在沒有任何預兆的情況下以最快速度攻擊到對手,後者是接觸到對手後又能以最大力量作用到對手身上。

3) 易犯錯誤:從我觀察看,現在大多數拳友最容易犯的錯誤歸結到兩點,第一是出手不干脆,或多或少地有預備動作,有的要運氣、有的要後拉手臂等等;第二是手到位後不能馬上剎車,也有多餘動作。

四、腳步快:形意拳譜上明確講“全憑腳打人”、“腳踏中門神仙難防”,就是指形意拳打人的特點是腳步移動要快速,要在第一時間佔住對手的中門。

1) 概念說明:在形意拳中,出腳移動的要求和出手攻擊是一樣的,實際也是要乾脆,即出腳快、停腳快,動則一觸即發、停則穩如磐石。

2) 實戰作用:出腳快的實戰意義不需要多講了,但是很多人會對要求停腳快不太能理解,實際上停腳快有幾個作用,第一是與手配合,是衝擊力最大化;第二是穩定重心,能迅速轉入下一個動作。

3) 易犯錯誤:這裡易犯的錯誤與手部的差不多,第一是出腳有預兆、第二是停腳有多餘動作。

五、力度猛:形意拳講究“一擊必倒”,必然要求力量要猛,但是形意拳的猛與外家拳的猛有不同。

1) 概念說明:形意拳的“猛”,要體現“其根在腳”,故多數會體現在出腳震動大地,而手臂並沒有特別用力的地方,很多老前輩聽人練的聲音就能判斷其功力高下,就是這個原因。

2) 實戰作用:腳力猛有多個實戰作用,第一可以將增強出拳力度;第二可以破壞對手馬步;第三可以增強自身馬步穩定性。

3) 易犯錯誤:許多人為了體現出腳猛,採用高抬腿再出步猛踏地面的方式,這是錯誤的,第一高抬腿預兆太大;第二從高向下猛踩會破環自身平衡;第三會對脊椎造成損傷。正確的做法是貼著地面快速出腳,腳跟著地迅速剎車,只要動作正確,其力度必然猛,不用刻意猛踩。

六、步伐穩:形意拳的發勁多在移動中完成,因此步伐不僅要求快、猛,而且還要穩,不然會自身重心不穩,被人反制。

1) 概念說明:要做到在發勁時的步伐穩定,有二個關鍵點,第一是出腳要貼地而行;第二是後腳要迅速跟進;第三跟進的後腳落地後要與前腳形成三角支撐;第四是跟進的後腳不可猛踩地面,而要輕放點地即可,便於迅速進第二步。

2) 實戰作用:以上跟步不僅可以發勁快、猛、穩,而且可以迅速再進步,形意拳的​​連環三崩拳就是這種步伐,對手後退都來不及。

3) 易犯錯誤:主要易犯三個錯誤,第一有很多拳友的跟進的後腳猛踩地,實際上會延緩再進步的時間,老前輩們的跟步很多是後腳輕點地發力就能立即進步,速度極快;第二跟進後腳太慢,變成了二個拍子,實際上要前腳到,後腳即到,基本是一個拍子;第三是跟進後腳與前腳沒有形成一個小的三角形。

七、身法活:身法活是每個拳種都要求的,形意拳也不例外,但是形意拳的身法活還有更高的要求,就是形意老拳譜上所謂的“束展”,要求做到“束展二字一命亡”,就是說一個束展身法就要對手的命。

1) 概念說明:束展身法並不是說身體在打拳或實戰時整體伸縮,而是要求全身的筋能夠瞬間伸縮,動度不大,這個實際是內勁的發放方式,要有內功基礎才行。

2) 實戰作用:掌握了身法的束展在實戰中有很大的作用,利用身法的束展可以在狹小空間和極短時間發揮手法和勁力,這樣就可以在貼身近戰中佔據主動,而在實戰中貼身近戰是最終解決戰鬥的主要環節。

3) 易犯錯誤:很多拳友將形意拳的身法簡單理解為轉腰,沒有進一步鬆開全身的筋,無法做出真正的束展身法,也就無法真正發出內勁,特別是不能在貼身狀態下發揮手法和發出抖勁。

八、氣息定:老前輩們很看重在練完一趟激烈的套路後,你的氣息是否平和安定,這是你內功修行的水平標誌之一
1) 概念說明:形意拳的內功練習中有一種快速移動的呼吸方法,要求一個快步一個呼吸,而且呼吸方式是獨特的,可以保證每次呼吸的量能夠滿足發勁等高強度運動的需要,因此一趟激烈的套路打完後,氣息是基本平和安定的。

2) 實戰作用:這種技術能力對實戰有太大用處,你可以一直保持良好的狀態,大大延緩疲勞,耐力增強很多。

3) 易犯錯誤:很多拳友一打快速激烈的套路,就會不由自主的產生屏氣等現象,特別是連續出招時更是如此,應該學會形意拳的呼吸法。

結束語:以上八個方面不僅是形意拳套路的要求,也是實戰的要求。一旦你達到了以上八個方面的標準,你的形意拳套路就會很有觀賞性,同時也能開始進入實戰應用訓練,否則是不能用形意拳實戰的,這就是很多人看似形意拳架子打得很熟練,但是一到實戰就不能發揮出來的原因。

做到了以上八個方面,你的形意拳水平就是達到了明勁的階段,才能說開始進入形意拳門檻了。但是要做到了以上八個方面,並不是容易的事情,必須在明勁訓練前,先經過形意拳獨有的內功訓練階段才行。           

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近代著名武術家形意拳大師褚桂亭先生(圖左四)
Introduction :

    
Since Li Luo Xing Yi Quan master can create , has formed a number of technical schools , but similar in basic characteristics are similar aspects of Xingyiquan . But now due to the old-timers who have passed away, xingyiquan heritage on a number of issues , the line began to deviate from the style of boxing , the most obvious example is xingyiquan 2011 National Wushu Championship contestant on , almost no one showed tradition Xingyiquan style, and deviate a lot . Folk existence of such circumstances, many so-called Xing Yi Quan Xing Yi Quan soon become the tai chi masters , "the fist fight " into a " health fist ", leading to the understanding that young people into misunderstanding Xingyiquan , can not determine a Xingyiquan people exercise in the end is good or bad , worrying xingyiquan future development.

    
I studied under famous modern martial artist, Grandmaster Li Cun Yi Xing Yi Quan Mr. ~ Chu Guiting genre , according to impart predecessors , combined with his experience, summed up the eight aspects of Xingyiquan exercise requirements can be judged as a xingyiquan players drill horizontal criteria, namely : imposing enough , the whole shape , made ​​fresh crisp , the pace fast, fierce intensity , steady pace , the body live, breath given .
Text :

First, imposing enough : Some people say Xingyiquan is " fighting boxing" , a little truth, mighty momentum Yeah, listen to me talk predecessors , former master of boxing when the older xingyiquan momentum is enough , Megatron opponents. If there is no momentum , it can not be said to be practicing Xingyiquan , so I will , " enough momentum " as the first criteria .

1 ) Concept Description : how to determine whether enough momentum players , mainly to see whether the retractable eyes change : the moment before the attack must be released eyes , eyes that point to the direction of the attack , the so-called covering opponents ; eyes must be recovered attack, referring to the eyes fixed in fresh point.

2 ) actual effect : more training method is also useful in combat , of course, use eye stare before the attack opponents , otherwise how do you know what the opponent's action ; attack moments to stare at your eyes are certainly part of the attack , otherwise how can we mobilize point then hit his impulsive .

3 ) pitfalls : Many boxing exercises Friends Xingyiquan most problems exist in the eye method , and some have been down in the course of practice , or has been looked up, there is no momentum.

Second, the shape of the whole : This is one of the most basic features of Xingyiquan , even if the players can not achieve this requirement , it certainly failed .

1 ) Concept Description : Shape refers to the player 's entire body action must be neat , eye to hand to the body to the foot , a move without a move, there is not a static non- static . For example

2 ) combat role : the whole shape requirements when combat is necessary, it will be perceived opponents do , but will not be great impulsive .

3 ) pitfalls : Many boxing Friends drill now , do not pay attention to this aspect , the general movement of the problems is that many hands have been started, but the feet and the body has not kept pace , half a beat slower , which is practiced Xingyiquan taboo.

Third, brittle hair Jin : Jin is xingyiquan hair core technology , traditional xingyiquan asked to use pubic hair started out strong, old-timers who see a person practicing Xingyi Quan made ​​fresh good or bad, whether on the use of " brittle" to generalization.

1 ) Concept Note : " brittle" is crisp meaning, which requires two , the first is in the stationary state starts to fast , to be shot in the moment , do not have any preparatory action , which is totally needed pubic effort home to be able to do ; second is the brake to be fast, but also transformed in an instant from fast action to stationary state, which also rely on pubic effort. Achieve the above two points , giving the impression that " profit off altogether ."

2 ) actual effect : in fact, " crisp " is the use of physical acceleration must be in the shortest time to reach the maximum speed from zero speed and the maximum speed from the speed drops to zero . The former can be in the absence of any warning to the fastest pace attack to the opponent , which is the maximum exposure to the opponent can force applied to the opponent's body .

3 ) pitfalls : From my observation , right now most of the boxing Friends easiest mistakes attributed to two points , the first shot is not just , more or less there is anticipation , and some to luck , some to after pulling the arm , etc. ; second place is not immediately after the hand brake , there are extra action .

Fourth, the pace fast: clear talk " depends feet hit " on Xingyiquan spectrum, " foot in the door hard against the gods ", meaning xingyiquan beating feature is moving to fast pace , to the first time occupy the opponent 's door.

1 ) Concept Description: Xingyiquan , the requirements and the feet moving shot attack is the same, but also to the actual altogether , namely the quick feet , and stopped quickly, moving the explosive , stopped the firm as a rock .

2 ) combat role : the quick feet of real meaning no need to say more , but it requires a lot of people would stop the foot too fast to understand , in fact, stopped a few feet fast action , first with hand cooperation, impact power maximization ; second stable center of gravity , can quickly turn to the next action.

3 ) pitfalls : almost here pitfalls and hand , the first is a foot portentously , was stopped in the second extra action.

Fifth, the intensity of fierce : xingyiquan pay attention to " blow will fall ," a necessary requirement to be fierce force , but the fierce and Waijia Xingyiquan boxing fierce different.

1 ) Concept Note : Xingyiquan "fierce " to reflect " its roots in the foot" , so most will be reflected in the feet shaking the earth , and the arm is not particularly hard place to practice a lot of veteran voice heard can determine the skill to compete , and this is why .

2 ) combat role : Li Meng has multiple combat role feet first punches can be enhanced efforts ; second can destroy opponents horse ; third horse can enhance their stability .

3 ) pitfalls : Many people in order to reflect the fierce feet , using high-leg and then step out of the way and shoved tread the ground , this is wrong , the first sign of too high leg ; second will slam down from the high broken ring their balance ; third would spinal damage. The correct approach is close to the ground quickly out of the foot , heel brake quickly , as long as the action is correct, their efforts will inevitably fierce , do not deliberately slam .

Sixth, steady pace : xingyiquan hair TOR completed the move , so the pace requires not only fast, fierce , but also steady, or will their center of gravity, being counter .

1 ) Concept Note : To be made ​​fresh at the pace steady , there are two key points , the first is to be affixed to the foot and the line ; second is to quickly follow up on the back foot ; third follow-up of the back foot after landing to form a triangle with forefoot support ; fourth is to follow up the rear can not slam on the ground, and put some ground to be light , easy to quickly enter the second step.

2 ) combat role : not only the above steps can be made with fresh fast , fierce , stable , and can be quickly re- progress comic three collapse Xingyiquan boxing is such a pace , the opponent back too late .

3 ) pitfalls : the main pitfalls three errors , the first follow-up has a lot of friends back foot fist slam , the time to actually slow progress, a lot of old-timers who are now walking back foot tap to send force can immediately progress fast ; second too slow to follow up the back foot , into a two beat, actually to the front foot to back foot that is to basically a beat ; third is to follow up the rear and forefoot did not form a small triangle.

Seven , agility live : Live every boxing agility are required Xingyiquan is no exception, but there is a higher living shenfa xingyiquan requirement is intended to form the so-called spectral throwing punches . " beam Show, " asked to do ," a life -beam show the word death , "that a beam agility necessary to show the opponent's life.

1 ) Concept Note : beam exhibition is not to say physical agility in boxing or combat when the overall stretching , but for the whole body muscle can instantly scalable, mobility is not, this is actually a way of issuance of interior strength , only to have the internal strength foundation line .

2 ) combat role : master agility beam exhibition has a significant role in actual combat , the use of beam agility exhibition can play tricks and impulsive in a small space and a very short time , so that you can take the initiative in close melee while in melee close combat in the main part of the battle is the ultimate solution .

3 ) pitfalls : Many boxing friends will xingyiquan agility simply understood as the waist , no further loosen the body's muscle, can not make a real bundle exhibition agility, it can not really send out interior strength , especially can not play tricks and issued a fresh shake under close state.

Eight breath given : old-timers who had finished a trip is valued at after intense routine , your breath is calm and stable, this is one of your internal organs spiritual level mark
1 ) Concept Note : xingyiquan internal strength exercises there is a fast-moving breathing method, which requires a trot a breath , and breathing pattern is unique , can guarantee to meet the volume of each breath made ​​fresh high intensity exercise needs , so after a trip to the fierce kick routine , peaceful atmosphere is the basic stability .

2 ) combat role : the ability of this technology have much use for real , you can always keep in good condition , greatly delaying fatigue , endurance enhancement lot.

3 ) pitfalls : Many boxing Friends of a dozen fast intense routine, it will not help to produce phenomena such as breath , especially , especially, should learn Xingyiquan breathing continuous moves .

Conclusion : The above eight areas is not only xingyiquan routine requirements, but also the actual requirements. Once you reach the eight aspects of the above criteria , you will be very entertaining routines xingyiquan , while also beginning to enter the combat application training , otherwise it is not practical to use Xingyiquan , which is a lot of people seem to form Yiquan shelf playing very skilled, but one real reason you can not play .

Done more than eight aspects , your level is reached Ming Xing Yi Quan Jin stage to say began to enter the threshold of Xingyiquan . But to do more than eight aspects , not the easy thing, to be trained before the Ming Jin , Xingyiquan unique internal strength to go through the training phase for the job .

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